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Table of Contents
About The Book
This “exuberant celebration of Black women’s joy as well as their achievements” (Kate Quinn, New York Times bestselling author) novelizes the life of real estate magnate Josephine N. Leary in a previously untold story of passion, perseverance, and building a legacy after emancipation in North Carolina.
Josephine N. Leary is determined to build a life of her own and a future for her family. When she moves to Edenton, North Carolina from the plantation where she was born, she is free, newly married, and ready to follow her dreams.
As the demands of life pull Josephine’s attention away, it becomes increasingly difficult for her to pursue her real estate aspirations. She finds herself immersed in deepening her marriage, mothering her daughters, and being a dutiful daughter and granddaughter. Still, she manages to teach herself to be a businesswoman, to manage her finances, and to make smart investments in the local real estate market. But with each passing year, it grows more and more difficult to focus on building her legacy from the ground up.
“Filled with passion and perseverance, Josephine Leary is frankly a woman that everyone should know” (Sadeqa Johnson, author of Yellow Wife) and her story speaks to the part of us that dares to dream bigger, tear down whatever stands in our way, and build something better for the loved ones we leave behind.
Reading Group Guide
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Carolina Built tells the story of Josephine Napoleon Leary, a real-life American entrepreneur who was emancipated in 1865. Leary went on to build an impressive real estate portfolio that neared $10 million in contemporary value. Through it all, she maintained a marriage, cared for her two daughters and extended family, and worked in the barbershop she owned jointly with her husband. She was faced with obstacles at every turn, but never backed down from a challenge.
Topics & Questions for Discussion
1. Kianna Alexander first learned of Josephine Napoleon Leary from a tweet. Inspired and fascinated by Leary’s story, Alexander was also dismayed that, as a native North Carolinian, she had never heard of Leary or her accomplishments. So she took to writing Carolina Built, highlighting the important story of this real-life female African American real estate businesswoman living in post–Civil War North Carolina. Consider your own time spent reading the news, scrolling through social media, surfing the internet, watching television, etcetera. Is there a person, a story, or an event you’ve come across that you were surprised had missed the mainstream? What resources—books, movies, articles, shows—might be available for you to learn more?
2. From a young age, Alexander observed that the accomplishments of African Americans are too often minimized, overlooked, or dismissed entirely. Writing Carolina Built was a way that Alexander felt she could be part of the solution to fix this erasure, by shining a light on Josephine Leary—a woman whose story has sat on the margins of history until now. Discuss the absence of figures like Josephine Leary from mainstream history. Why do you think Leary’s story hasn’t been well known for so many years? If it weren’t for Kianna Alexander writing Carolina Built, do you think Leary’s legacy would still be relatively unknown?
3. Though Alexander had myriad resources to study the historical facts of Leary’s life, a novel requires a structured narrative arc with dynamic characters, dialogue, inner monologues, and conflict, among other things. Considering the real-life subjects of this book have been dead for generations, Alexander was left to rely on her imagination and historical research to bring Leary and her family, friends, and acquaintances to life on the page as characters in the novel. In your opinion, was Alexander successful in producing a compelling novelization of real people and events in Carolina Built? What do you think would be the biggest challenges of writing a historically accurate biographical novel? If you were to write a book on a historical figure, would you choose to write a nonfiction biography or a biographical novelization?
4. After she was emancipated in 1865, Josephine Leary went on to build an extremely valuable real estate portfolio—she was a true real estate magnate at a time when it seemed all the odds were against her. Leary built her portfolio, wealth, and legacy while maintaining a marriage, running her barbershop business, raising children, and caring for her extended family, which included her grandmother, mother, and brother. As a Black woman in the late 1860s, Leary was faced with obstacles at every turn, but she never backed down from a challenge. Today, which barriers to success would Josephine still face? Which ones have become obsolete in contemporary society?
5. As Josephine begins her free, newly married life with Archer Leary (Sweety) in Edenton, North Carolina, she is quick to set her heart, mind, and focus on building her and her family’s legacy. Discuss the role of legacy in Carolina Built and in Josephine Leary’s life. Why is legacy so important to Josephine? Does Sweety assign the same importance to legacy that his wife does? Why or why not?
6. Josephine’s biological father is a white man, Colonel Lamb, who impregnated Josephine’s mother, Jeanette, when he visited the plantation where her family was previously enslaved. This was a common practice at the time, as Josephine acknowledges: “I know the colonel is the stern-looking, dark-eyed man who sired me, then denied me. I suppose he’s simply doing what other men of his status do, but I try not to think on him too much (page 4). When Josephine marries Sweety, who is also of mixed race, she mentions the difference in their complexions: “My husband possesses a fair enough complexion to pass; I do not. It’s a mere coincidence, a trick of fate. Yet wherever we go, people assume he is white and that I’m Negro” (page 13). Discuss this notion of “passing.” Do you think the events of Josephine and Sweety’s life in Edenton—including their purchasing land, building a house, opening a business in town—would have been different if they weren’t of mixed race, or if Josephine had been the one between them who could “pass,” while Sweety was considered “colored”?
7. Discuss Josephine’s very first real estate purchase, and the interaction between the newly married Learys and the proprietor, Mr. Charles, who demands the full price of five hundred dollars up front for the lot they’d like to purchase instead of half the price, as had been advertised. He says to Sweety: “I had no intention of selling my land to anybody associating with coloreds” (page 13). Josephine steps in and offers the full five hundred dollars from money sent to her as a wedding gift from her biological father. Mr. Charles relents, and reluctantly sells them the property. Within this scene we see Josephine’s ambitious, bold character and natural business acumen come to life. Discuss the nature of Mr. Charles’s racism in the context of Josephine’s observation that “his greed outweighs his prejudice” (page 15). Do you think Josephine took this fact into consideration going forward in business dealings? Do you think this observation that greed outweighs prejudice contributed to her eventual wealth and success in the real estate business? How else did Josephine use social observations and her own interpersonal skills to her advantage?
8. Discuss the nature of Josephine and Sweety’s relationship. Josephine is ruefully aware of her eccentricities as a woman in the context of her time: “Society has deemed men the breadwinners and women the caretakers, and Sweety and I are a part of that society. But to send me off to do chores as if I’m a child? Or the cleaning lady? That just beats the Dutch” (page 35). Is there an argument to be made for Sweety’s feelings of shame and emasculation in the context of history when his wife earns and spends money on herself and their family? Did you notice a distinct moment in the book when Sweety’s dismissive treatment of Josephine as a woman goes from troublesome to damaging? Why do you think Josephine stays with Sweety? What can we learn from their relationship about compassion and forgiveness?
9. Josephine has two beloved daughters, Clara and Florrie. Many times, Josephine alludes to her desire and determination to give them an easy life. She devotes herself to her daughters’ development as strong, educated, and independent women, almost as if they too are investments in the portfolio of their family’s greater legacy. In what ways does Josephine encourage and tend to her daughters’ curiosities, interests, and growth that might have been considered a break from the status quo of mothering? What parenting practices of Josephine’s might have set her apart from other mothers of her time?
10. Discuss the scene at the Edenton Ladies Auxiliary meeting where Josephine presents on “the societal roles of the modern woman, and how we might act and speak in ways that will increase our levels of success and satisfaction in life” (page 162). Josephine’s words are received with mostly bewildered and scandalized reactions. Why do you think the women in the Ladies Auxiliary react with such shock and suspicion to Josephine’s idea of financial independence? Why do you think Alberta reacts with defensive anger? Discuss the differences in the expectations of women in the 1860s. Is Josephine far ahead of her time, presenting new and unorthodox ideologies? Or are her thoughts on the role of the modern woman part of an established school of thought? Who would have been Leary’s feminist contemporaries?
11. Josephine Leary and Rosa Jackson are immediate kindred spirits, despite that Josephine is Black and Rosa is white. Josephine observes, “There’s something about Rosa, be it her easy manner, ready smile, or unconventional dress, that makes me think we’ll be fast friends” (page 24). Discuss Rosa and Josephine’s fast and easy friendship, considering Rosa is the daughter of one of the wealthiest landowners in the county. What do you make of Rosa? Why do you think she treats Josephine as an equal, while other white men and women in Edenton do not?
12. Discuss Josephine’s reactions to instances of racism in the book. When two white women attack Josephine with racial slurs, she calmy writes it off as a “lack of breeding” (page 131), choosing instead to ignore them even when they continue their racist provocations. Then there is the climactic scene at the Juneteenth festivities when three former Confederate officers drunkenly ride their horses through the celebration, hurling a wag of rotten tomatoes. After Sweety goes to the sheriff, who is willing to address his concerns because of his light complexion, the sheriff concedes to punish only the ringleader of the group, but only with a “stern talking-to” (page 241). Sweety is disappointed, but grateful for any repercussion nonetheless. What do you make of Josephine’s and Sweety’s reactions to the racism that they encounter in Edenton? How does their treatment and lack of justice make you feel?
13. The book ends with Josephine’s decision to rebuild on the lot that has burned down instead of her selling it. The closing lines suggest a long road of work ahead, and Leary’s enthusiastic intention to continue building her business and legacy for years to come: “Where I was lost, I now have direction. I have my brother, and my ancestors, to thank for that. And now that I have my heading, there will be no stopping me” (page 301). The epilogue brings us to the celebratory grand opening of the J. N. Leary Building. What questions are you left with? Do you feel there were any important questions about Leary’s life left unanswered, or is there a piece of the story you would like to know more about?
14. For Josephine, a central aspect of the legacy that she sets out to build has to do with financial security and independence for herself and her daughters—the first generation of her family born into freedom following emancipation. Unfortunately, the assumption that now-free African Americans could ascend the economic ladder and catch up with the country’s white population in terms of generational wealth has not been a reality. Eight generations later, according to a 2019 Washington Post article (see https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2019/06/19/why-racial-wealth-gap-persists-more-than-years-after-emancipation/), a typical Black family in America has one tenth the wealth of a typical white family. Why? Author Ta-Nehisi Coates has coined the term “the quiet plunder,” referring to a system in which the people in power perpetuate racial discrimination and disadvantages by creating new ways to marginalize the Black population, and do so by concealing their intentions with their own narratives of freedom and civil rights. Discuss the concept of generational wealth and race in America today. What are ways that racial oppression has morphed through the years from the Civil War to today?
Enhance Your Book Club
1. Review the bibliography (page 313) and choose a text from the list to read as further reading. Discuss your choice(s) with the group.
2. Legacy is a central theme in Carolina Built—it is a primary motivating factor in Josephine Leary’s persistent business and financial ambitions. What do you think constitutes a “good” legacy to Leary? Now think about your own life. What does “legacy” mean to you? What is your idea of a good legacy, and how can you achieve it?
3. Discuss other female figures in American history who have had impressive business success. Do you see patterns in their success stories? What lessons can you apply from their experiences to your own life?
- Publisher: Gallery Books (May 26, 2022)
- Length: 336 pages
- ISBN13: 9781982163686
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Raves and Reviews
“[Josephine Leary’s] inspiring story transcends one life in the years after emancipation to encompass all women who take the chance to secure their own happiness.”
“Based on the life of the awe-inspiring Josephine N. Leary, Kianna Alexander’s Carolina Built tells the previously untold story of the real estate luminary’s climb to freedom. Readers are invited to follow Leary after emancipation in North Carolina as she chases her dreams and equips herself with the tools she needs to be a successful businesswoman in real estate. Building a legacy becomes challenging amidst maintaining a marriage and caring for her daughters, but she pushes forward against all odds — as Black women remarkably do.”
“Kianna Alexander breathes life into forgotten historical matriarch Josephine Leary, a budding entrepreneur born into slavery and raising herself to power after the Civil War as a community investor and savvy businesswoman. Josephine's moving struggle to build family and fortune will strike a chord in a story that is both timely and timeless—Carolina Built is an exuberant celebration of Black women's joy as well as their achievements!”
—Kate Quinn, New York Times bestselling author of The Rose Code
“In Kianna Alexander's moving Carolina Built, readers are afforded a look at the life of newly emancipated Josephine Leary and her courageous efforts to build a real estate business in post-Civil War North Carolina, all the while balancing the ever-increasing demands of her traditional responsibilities.”
— Marie Benedict, New York Times bestselling author of The Mystery of Mrs. Christie and Her Hidden Genius
“A beautiful, heartfelt story of an extraordinary woman too long forgotten to history. Kianna Alexander has recreated Josephine Leary's life with wonderful historical detail and obvious care that shines through on the page. Josephine's strength, determination, and ambition will an inspiration to any woman.”
—Julia Kelly, international bestselling author of The Last Garden in England
“Carolina Built is an integral addition to a part of our history that omits the accomplishments of Black women. Filled with passion and perseverance, Josephine Leary is frankly a woman that everyone should know.”
—Sadeqa Johnson, International bestselling author of Yellow Wife
“Carolina Built brings to light another hidden figure whose story is long overdue. I loved meeting Josephine Leary between these pages, the woman who moved from bondage to freedom to financial independence. Filled with dreams and passion, Josephine desired nothing more than to leave a legacy for the generations to follow—and she accomplished that. What a feat for a woman who started with nothing. Her passion and perseverance was so impressive and from the very first page, I never wanted to put this book down.”
—Victoria Christopher Murray, New York Times bestselling author of The Personal Librarian
“I’m so thankful Kianna Alexander has magnificently resurrected the life and work of Josephine Leary, an entrepreneurial warrior whose guiding light is needed now more than ever. Leary's brilliant legacy in the business world, as richly depicted by Alexander in Carolina Built, made me cry, clap, and cheer, leaving me fully empowered to follow the pioneering path Leary forged for all to follow.”
—Piper Huguley, author of Sweet Tea
“Kianna Alexander builds an intimate portrait of an ambitious woman who found a way to become more than the name, Mrs. Leary. This is not simply a wife-of-tale or the woman-behind-the-man story. Alexander deftly crafts a character-driven narrative that allows Josephine to shine, making her both remarkable and relatable. I wish to sit and have coffee with ‘Jo’ on her porch and listen to her wisdom of how she succeeded, how she became more—stretching her arms wide enough to hold on to her dreams, her marriage, and manage motherhood.”
— Vanessa Riley, author of Island Queen
“A powerful love letter to the grit and determination of real estate maven Josephine Napoleon Leary, a formerly enslaved African-American woman undeterred by the poverty, sexism, and racism of late-1800s North Carolina, that both satisfies and inspires.”
—Kaia Alderson, author of Sisters in Arms
“Carolina Built by Kianna Alexander tells the inspiring story of the real-life historical figure Josephine Napoleon Leary, the North Carolina former slave but free wife and mother who eventually becomes a real estate tycoon. A character-driven tale, Carolina Built delves expertly into the daily life of a woman whose small battles provide as much texture and passion as her and her husband’s entrepreneurial ambition. It’s a thrill to read a novel about a Black woman who is as successful in business as she is a wife and mother, especially in a story told in the South during the post-Civil War decades.”
—Denny Bryce, author of Wild Women and The Blues
“A triumph! Carolina Built shines by perfectly capturing the perseverance, grit and heart of a formidable woman who builds an empire against unbelievable odds.”
—Joanna Shupe, USA Today bestselling author
“Incredibly well researched and filled with historical detail, Carolina Built is inspiring and relatable, and oftentimes humorous…. The author’s passion for telling Josephine’s story is evident in the pages, and I enjoyed learning about such a determined woman.”
— Historical Novel Society
"A pleasant panorama of middle-class small-town life in the late 19th century."
— Kirkus Reviews
“Alexander’s exhaustive research and the ample historical detail do justice to the material…the author does a nice job illuminating the life of an extraordinary historical figure.”
— Publishers Weekly
“Kianna Alexander brought the real Josephine Leary to life in her page-turning book of historical fiction that leapt off the page.”
—The Southern Bookseller Review
“A necessary addition to the literature on post–Civil War life for freed Black men and women, and a critical reminder of the power of the freedom to dream.”
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